A Must Own…

2016-08-22_12h19_20In just the past few decades, South Carolina has emerged as one of the most exciting archaeological research sites on the continent. Literally.

ARCHAEOLOGY IN SOUTH CAROLINA: Exploring the Hidden Heritage of the Palmetto State, edited by Adam King, contains an overview of the fascinating archaeological research currently ongoing in the Palmetto State and features essays by twenty scholars studying South Carolina’s past through archaeological research. The scholarly contributions are enhanced by more than one hundred black-and-white and thirty-eight color images of some of the most important and interesting sites and artifacts found in the state.

South Carolina has an extraordinarily rich history encompassing some of the first human habitations of North America as well as the lives of people at the dawn of the modern era. King begins the anthology with the basic hows and whys of archaeology and introduces readers to the current issues influencing the field of research. The contributors are all recognized experts from universities, state agencies, and private consulting firms, reflecting the diversity of people and institutions that engage in archaeology.

The volume begins with investigations of some of the earliest Paleo-Indian and Native American cultures that thrived in South Carolina, including work at the Topper Site along the Savannah River. Other essays explore the creation of early communities at the Stallings Island site, the emergence of large and complex Native American polities before the coming of Europeans, the impact of the coming of European settlers on Native American groups along the Savannah River, and the archaeology of the Yamasee, a people whose history is tightly bound to the emerging European society.

The focus then shifts to Euro-Americans with an examination of a long-term project seeking to understand George Galphin’s trading post established on the Savannah River in the eighteenth century.

The volume concludes with the recollections of a life spent in the field by South Carolina’s preeminent historical archaeologist Stanley South, now retired from the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of South Carolina. March 2015, 304 pages, 38 color and 103 b&w illustrations

Your Field Journal

It’s been almost a decade since I bought my field journal. When I saw it in a gift shop I knew I had to have it – the Col. Littleton No. 9 Journal, crafted out of thick leather and brass. It looked like something that Hemmingway might have opened under the glow of an oil lamp to record some electrifying showdown involving a flurry of dust, a custom English side-by-side rifle, and a pissed-off cape buffalo. When I told mom what I paid for the No. 9 she wryly (in that harmless, endearing way only a mom can) replied “Hunter, I doubt you have anything that important to say”.

Mom was more or less right. No doubt, the Nobel Prize Committee would not find my entries fit for personal use in a public bathroom. Nevertheless, over the years I have accumulated a priceless pile of journal refills, filled cover to cover, each one stained with the sweat and dirt of a thousand wild moments.

Fortunately for most of us, neither a literary propensity nor grammatical precision is requisite to keeping a field journal. In fact laboriously technical composition in a field journal might suggest that the author wasn’t paying attention to the field. Formalism is tacky in a field journal, so if that’s your thing, keep a diary. Meanwhile two deer just slipped right past you.

It is the informality and imperfections that make your entries yours and over time are the underpinning for thier intrinsic value. Your handwriting, if you record events in real time, can add more to your record than words ever could: cold stiff hands, hands rattling with adrenaline, smeared ink from sweaty palms. The the last word in nostalgia is thumbing through old entries and finding the stiff penmanship of nearly frost bitten fingers; or the salient details of a hunt, written with shaking hands and blood on the page as standing proof of meat on the ground; or a poorly rendered sketch of a blackburnian warbler that lit on a nearby branch and blew you away.

A record might even be expressed by some piece of musty wildness pressed between the pages. Naturalist Joe Hutto would smear deer flies and yellow flies on the pages of his field journal as he followed his flock of wild turkeys through the Florida hammock. The more smears from the respective species of fly, the worse that species was on that particular day. It saved him time, he explained. I doubt that, but I like the idea. I started doing the same thing, and when I run across an old entry with 10 or 12 mosquitoes smeared into the margin, the memory of an early-season deer hunt among black water and cypress trees comes rushing back with more momentum than words alone can summon.

In time, your field journal takes on a life of its own. Your entries accumulate to something more than the sum of scarcely legible notes on dirty paper. A distinctive character emerges from your scribblings, with feathers from dead turkeys and autumn leaves pressed between the pages. Finally, the entries become a deeply personal anthology of wild strivings and a tangible collection of moments that define your passion and nourish your love of wild things.

Aldo Leopold

AldoLeopoldHome

Aldo Leopold: the father of wildlife management.

The progress of conservation in the US is paved by sportsmen, naturalists, philosophers, scientists, authors, activists and more. Despite their various, and sometimes clashing philosophies, their efforts added up to acre upon acre of preserved wilderness, and an ever growing awareness of our dependence on ecological integrity.

Even with so many players, it is doubtful that any single name is as revered among conservationists from all walks of life as the name Aldo Leopold.

Leopold began his career as a forester with the US Forest Service. By the end of his career, would produce hundreds of publications, launch conservation organizations, found the field (indeed, even the notion) of wildlife management , and hold the first such professorship at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

However, Aldo Leopold’s most influential contribution would emerge from the pages of an unassuming book of essays publishedASCA posthumously. Through A Sand County Almanac, Aldo Leopold would would awaken the minds and touch the hearts of readers for generations, and leave us with a work that would be deemed the cornerstone of the North American environmental movement.

Leopold was just the person to author such a book. He was the erudite professor lecturing with the brilliant prose of a poet. In ASCA, Leopold teaches us how to read and understand the land, and we learn that even the subtlest natural event may offer intuitive deduction and intriguing questions as we learn to see and wonder. To Leopold, “Every farm woodlot is a textbook on animal ecology; woodsmanship is the translation of the book.”

AL&tree_duo_sm

Leopold inspects one of his white pines.

Part I of ASCA is  a charming and thought-provoking trek through fields and forests, with Aldo as our guide. In January, we follow skunk tracks in the thawing snow, see what saplings the rabbits have girdled and draw  thought-provoking deductions from hawks and meadow mice.  In April, we watch the mating ritual of the woodcock’s Sky Dance. In June, we follow Leopold on a fishing trip on The Alder Fork, and sense that the value of the experience is in the pursuit. In October, we follow along with Aldo and his dog Gus through the Smokey Gold tamaracks of Adams County in pursuit of ruffed grouse. In November we take to the woods with Axe in Hand where we really begin to understand how the mind of a conservationist works. In December, we smile at Leopold’s enthusiasm for tracking chickadees.

In the sections following the Almanac , Leopold’s prose becomes slightly more poignant as he wrestles head-on with some heavier issues such as predator control, the cultural value of wilderness, the role of science in conservation, and more.

Finally, in what is likely his most famous work, Leopold pulls it all together in brilliant fashion with the book’s capstone essay called The Land Ethic – a beautifully written exposition on the relationship between land and people.

leopold2

With his longbow in hand, Aldo Leopold scans for deer from a high bluff in northern New Mexico.

That land is a community”, Leopold explains in the Forward to ASCA, “is the basic concept of ecology, but that land is to be loved and respected is an extension of ethics. That land yields a cultural harvest is a fact long known, but latterly often forgotten.” It is those three concepts that Leopold so eloquently weaves together throughout his monumental book.

In the end, we have an inspiring glimpse into the mind of one of history’s greatest conservationists. Most of all, however, Aldo Leopold left us with a piece of work that lays out the value of nature and a resounding call to preserve it, both for its own sake, and for ours.

For more on Aldo Leopold and his conservation legacy, or to purchase a copy of A Sand County Almanac, visit aldoleopold.org

Hunter S. Bridges

 

Landscaping for Wildlife

Swallowtail on Milkweed X

“Our ability to perceive quality in nature begins, as in art, with the pretty. It expands through successive stages of the beautiful to values as yet uncaptured by language.”  Aldo Leopold

No doubt, by creating a landscape that offers the same utility to wildlife as natural habitat, you will enjoy a greater diversity of wildlife species year around. But the real satisfaction is coming to understand the components of wildlife habitat and how wildlife depend those components. By coming to understand wildlife habitat, you will learn firsthand, and hands on, how to comprehend land from wildlife’s perspective. You will become an ecologist in every sense of the word.

An urban wildlife habitat should accomplish two things. It should meet your needs, such as aesthetics, maintenance and cost, as well as meet the needs of wildlife: cover, food, water and space.

Understanding Cover for Wildlife

The importance of cover to wildlife is often overlooked but cannot be understated. Sufficient cover allows animals to avoid predators and offers safe places for nesting, brooding or avoiding inclement weather. Escape cover for birds, for instance, should be dense and close to where they access food or water. Nesting cover varies. It might dense vegetation for ground-nesting species like Canada geese or killdeer. For cavity nesters like wrens, bluebirds or wood ducks, standing dead trees or artificial nesting boxes can offer nesting cover. Brooding cover is critical for species like bobwhite quail, ruffed grouse and wild turkey, whose young are mobile and must forage for insects as soon as they hatch. In essence, cover types are structurally different and wildlife use them in different ways. In most urban cases escape cover should be the focus: consider a food source like a single bird feeder; that feeder will concentrate birds, and predators will quickly learn to focus on that location. If the feeder is close to adequate escape cover, it will be more heavily used by birds, since they can quickly dive into the safety of brush before a predator can close the deal.

The arrangement of cover also matters. Cover should be multi-dimensional; that is, diverse horizontally across your landscape and diverse vertically from understory to mid-story to tree canopy.

An example of very poor vertical diversity. There is no mid-story and very little, if any, usable understory.

Different species of wildlife, birds in particular, will utilize different vertical levels of vegetation. Species such as sparrows and wrens spend most of their time within ten or fifteen feet of the ground, whereas some species, like the threatened cerulean warbler, generally stay high in the canopy. Providing different levels of vertical vegetation – vertical diversity –  will make your habitat desirable to more species.

Forest openings create horizontal diversity by breaking up mature forests, creating diversity across the landscape. Forest openings like fields and meadows are areas where the most sunlight reaches the ground and allows

Forest openings offer horizontal diversity. They also offer great cover and food for wildlife.

Forest openings offer horizontal diversity. They also offer great cover and food for wildlife.

grasses and broad-leafed forbs to flourish, offering excellent cover and a storehouse of seeds and protein-rich insects. Species like the eastern meadowlark, purple martins, swallows and flycatchers depend on these areas. Openings also create valuable edge habitat. You’ll notice also that unmanicured forest openings, like fallow fields or powerlines, do not have a crisp transition from grass to forest. Instead the vegetation is very dense along the edge. The transition from knee-high grass and weeds, to thick saplings and vines, to mature forest, is gradual. That gradual, layered transition from one habitat type to another is called an ecotone and is heavily favored by wildlife.

 

Cover for Wildlife in your Landscape

In your lawn, hedge rows and beds of dense vegetation can offer ideal escape cover for wildlife and be an appealing profile to you landscape design. Vegetated fence rows are another opportunity to incorporate cover for wildlife.

When deciding on what to plant as a hedge row, consider whether or not the plants will offer sufficient cover year around. For instance, hydrangeas and some Virburnum species, which are common deciduous ornamentals, offer great cover during the summer but poor cover during the winter (though, that’s not to say they should never be planted). American hollies are native evergreens, regularly used as ornamental hedges, and offer excellent cover year-around.  Other ideal hedge plants include Eastern red cedar, Japanese honeysuckle and wax myrtle, all of which offer a food source as well.

Keeping “soft edges” on hedge rows enhances the hedge’s utility as escape cover, while tightly trimmed hedge rows are slightly more difficult for birds to penetrate quickly into the safety of the branches. In addition, thorny plants such as blackberry present even more of an impediment to would-be predators.

The "tight" pruning on these hedges makes them difficult for many wildlife species to enter.

The “tight” pruning on these hedges makes them difficult for many wildlife species to enter. This compromises the hedges’ utility as escape cover.

There are numerous native plant species that are attractive landscaping specimens and valuable to wildlife. Using native plant species has several benefits. Native species, being already adapted to your region’s climate will require little or no watering, fertilizer or other special care. In addition, native wildlife is generally adapted to seeking out native food items. Referring to the resources at the end of this article, as well as consulting a local plant nursery, preferably one that offers native plant species, will give you a lot of options and allow you to use your own creativity.

Many species depend on dead, standing trees for food and as nesting cover. Photo Credit: illinois.edu

Many wildlife species depend on standing dead trees for both food and cover. However in urban settings, dead trees are most often removed to reduce liability and enhance aesthetics; if you can leave a few, do so. If not, offering nesting boxes for cavity nesters can help offset the deficit of natural cavities. Nesting boxes should face away from each other to

Photo Credit: www.mowersource.com

Photo Credit:
www.mowersource.com

avoid competition (female blue birds for instance can be wildly aggressive if the openings face each other). Many commercial bird houses are available, but metal or plastic bird houses should be avoided, as they tend to retain heat more than wooden boxes which can lead to “cooked nests”.

If possible, a portion of your landscape should be converted to a tall, grassy,meadow-type habitat. The grass should be mowed or weedeated downtwice a year, once in early summer and again in late summer,  to reset natural succession and discourage woody plant vegetation. One drawback in many urban settings is that unmowed grass suggests a neglected lawn. However, by thoughtfully orienting and mantaining your meadow habitat you can create an aesthetically pleasing layer to your landscape’s arrangement. Dispersing native wildflowers among the grass

Adding wildflowers to your tall grasses can add color to your landscape and benefit wildlife. Photo Credit: www.americanmeadows.com

Adding wildflowers to your tall grasses can add color to your landscape and benefit wildlife.
Photo Credit: www.americanmeadows.com

will add a splash of color to your landscape as well as attract butterflies and hummingbirds. A few native, low maintenance wildflower species to consider include:

  • Black-eyed Susan
  • Purple coneflower
  • Butterfly weed
  • Standing cypress
  • Sage (Salvia coccinea)
  • Cardinal flower
  • Sweet goldenrod

Food for Wildlife

Offering plants that produce fruit well into winter, such as American holly or Eastern red cedar, will ensure that wildlife can find adequate nutrition even during stress periods. Photo Credit: fineartamerica.com

Offering plants that produce fruit well into winter, such as American holly or Eastern red cedar, will ensure that wildlife can find adequate nutrition even during stress periods.
Photo Credit: fineartamerica.com

Food items should be diverse and available year around. Incorporating plants that produce fruit at different times of the year will ensure that wildlife are able to meet nutritional demands even during stress periods such as late winter. It is convenient that many plant species that offer great cover for wildlife also offer excellent food sources. This can save space in your yard and keep food and cover close together. Native plant species should be the first resort. A few attractive, native (to the southeast) species of fruiting trees and shrubs that will provide food from mid-summer will into fall include American Beautyberry, Hearts-A-Busting, Dogwood, Black Cherry and Sugar Berry. As a winter food source, consider American Holly and Eastern Red Cedar. Again, there are a lot of options depending on your region and soil conditions so researching and consulting plant nursery will allow you to determine which plant species are best for your landscape.

Insects are equally important food items. This is where your meadow type

Many species depend exclusively on insects, like this purple martin. Photo Credit: www.wildlifeextra.com

Many species depend exclusively on insects, like this purple martin.
Photo Credit: www.wildlifeextra.com

habitat can play a crucial role since the tall grass holds more insects than short mow. Amply higher in protein than fruits, insects are a critical part of birds’ diet, especially during the spring when females rely on insects to feed their rapidly growing young who require a protein-rich diet. Some species, such as wrens, most warblers, phoebes, great-crested and blue-gray flycatchers prefer insects year-around. During the summer months you will likely notice bats feed just above these areas to glean small insects that spend the hottest

Hatchlings depend on insects for protein. Photo Credit: digitalphotoacademy.com

Hatchlings depend on insects for protein.
Photo Credit: digitalphotoacademy.com

hours of the day among the cover of tall grasses. Tall grasses largely benefit insects in the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets, grasshoppers, katydids and more. Insect pests such as mosquitoes, roaches and termites will not be similarly encouraged by tall grass.

Warblers are brilliantly colored species that migrate back and forth over the southeast from their wintering grounds in the neo-tropics to their breeding grounds in the northeastern US and Canada. They are also habitat specialists, meaning that they prefer specific habitat types, especially specific food items, as opposed to most resident backyard bird species who are habitat generalists. Warblers are almost exclusively insectivorous and especially benefit from vertical diversity. Tree species such as oak and beech generally offer more caterpillars than other tree species and will be more attractive to warblers than a bird feeder. Warbler sightings can be an indicator of how successful your backyard habitat is, but not always.

Feeders can be an excellent supplementary food source, especially during winter when both vegetable and animal food items are hard to come by. But

This bird feeder is not close to escape cover. A bird visiting this feeder is taking a risk. Photo Credit: www.shrubcoat.com

This bird feeder is not close to escape cover. A bird visiting this feeder is taking a risk.
Photo Credit:
www.shrubcoat.com

feeders have their drawbacks and should be a supplement to, not a substitute for, wild food items. Feeders concentrate birds, provoking aggression within and among species as well as making them more vulnerable to predators. Using several feeders, placed at different heights and in different parts of your landscape can decrease competition and, of course, placing them close to escape cover can decrease predation. The most common types of seed available are millet, black oil sunflower and thistle seed. Blends, usually containing peanuts, black oil sunflowers and millet, are not bad but offering those seeds separately in different feeders can help to curtail competition since different species often prefer different types of seed. For finches, Niger or thistle seed is preferred to all other seeds. Suet, a mix of fat, seeds and nuts can be an excellent supplement. Suet is high in protein and energy and will often attract birds that are typically insectivorous, especially during winter when insects are not as abundant. Move your feeders every few weeks to avoid a build-up of droppings beneath the feeder which can represent a health hazard.

Be judicious with pesticides. While mosquito and fire ant control can be a reasonable objective, consider that if an insecticide kills mosquitoes or fire ants it is likely just as toxic to other insects. Bifenthrin is a very effective insecticide and one of the most common active ingredients in over-the-counter insecticides. Bifenthrin is not a selective insecticide and if it is applied indiscriminately all non-target insect species are effected. Bifenthrin’s impact on the declining honeybee population is of considerable concern. To control fire ants, consider applying the insecticide directly to nests (in accordance with application directions), as opposed to broadcasting evenly over the lawn.

Water

Water should always be nearby. A natural water source like a creek or pond is a-bird_bath_fun-1517257ideal because they require little or no maintenance and will always provide fresh water. Artificial water features are great as well, though they’re often expensive to install. Bird baths work perfectly well as long as the water is changed every few days. If you have the space, offering two or three bird baths can decrease competition by providing more of the resource. Again, keep the baths close to escape cover.

If you are lucky enough to have a natural water source connected to your landscape you may have additional wildlife viewing opportunities, as some species like belted kingfishers, hooded warblers, prothonotary warblers, great blue herons, etc. require natural water sources. Preserving dense vegetation along the bank will encourage wildlife to visit, reduce erosion, and preserve water quality by naturally filtering runoff.

Space

Space is another important wildlife habitat component. The amount of space an animal needs depends largely on how far it has to travel to meet its daily nutritional requirements. The area an animal travels on a daily basis to meet those demands is called its home range. For migratory species, home range can include tens of thousands of miles; for a whitetail deer a few hundred acres can be sufficient; for a robin or sparrow, just a few acres might do. When food, water and cover are close by, wildlife needn’t travel as far to meet their nutritional demands. Most urban landscape initiatives are restricted to relatively small property boundaries, so getting neighbors involved in wildlife friendly landscaping might increase desirable habitat size from a few small disconnected properties to a large, subdivision-wide wildlife initiative.

Fertilizers

Fertilizers, while frowned upon by some “experts”, can be an asset. Applied properly, fertilizer has been shown to increase the nutritional quality, abundance of vegetation and fruit production, palatability, and digestibility of many plant species. However, applied improperly, fertilizer can lead to compromised water quality and other environmental concerns, not to mention the cost. Fertilizer should only be applied in accordance with the results of a soil test. There are numerous facilities that offer soil analysis at a negligible cost, as well as easy-to-follow online resources for interpreting the results from your soil test.

Urban Wildlife and Predation

Pets are often the most significant predators to urban wildlife.

Pets are often the most significant predators to urban wildlife.

When you have created your wildlife habitat, you will have created a place where wildlife is likely to congregate, and as prey congregates, so do predators. Some predation is inevitable, however offering sufficient cover will keep the playing field level between predator and prey. In many cases, pets are the main predators of urban wildlife.

Finally, enjoy getting dirt under your fingernails and working with the landscape, not against it. Remember that in the end, your initiatives are well conceived and will likely add up to more than just good intentions.

Hunter S. Bridges

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